60 THE FATE OF MAN of -organization as political or economic life. But this always means that spirit is considered as an epiphenomenon, that its primacy over the material is denied. In practice, the process of organizing a unity of thought usually leads to strengthening the police and espionage organs of the state. The desire to do away with spiritual and mental anarchy, and to attain a spiritual unity and an integral world-view, is a desire quite just and deserving of our sympathy: the age of formal Liberalism, of scepticism and free-thinkers, is approaching the end of its road. But along the way there lie in wait the temptations of the Grand Inquisitor. One of these is the dictated world-view. It has led to the most evil results in Russian Communism and in German National- Socialism, The dictated Weltanschauung is not a real elimination of chaos, but only a formal organization of chaos, a superficial, despotic order beneath which chaos never ceases to yawn. The modern movements in this direction have tremendous symptomatic significance: they mean transition into a new epoch, but they do not mean that epoch itself Their positive value is biological, first of all, as indicative of the vital force of modern youth, its capacity for enthusiasm.